Vehicle manufacturers are always looking for solutions that can improve the performance of their products. In the truck and bus industry, minor improvements in a vehicle can result in significant profits for the operators. This article focuses on how the BorgWarner turbocharger works.
The BorgWarner Story
BorgWarner has been providing groundbreaking solutions for the truck and bus industry for decades. Since the company’s inception in 1928, it has grown to establish more than 60 manufacturing facilities all over the world.
Borg-Warner Automotive Inc. was launched as an independent company in 1993 and has continued making revolutionary products to date. The company is now a market leader in the production of OEM and aftermarket parts for European trucks like DAF, IVECO, MAN and others.
What is a Turbocharger?
A turbocharger or ‘Turbo’ is a performance-boosting device for a wide variety of engines. Turbochargers increase the amount of air that goes into the engine per cycle. The additional air improves combustion and results in extra engine power.
How Turbochargers Work
Unlike superchargers, turbochargers do not use mechanical power. Turbocharger turbines are driven by exhaust gas that is expelled directly from the cylinder. By using the exhaust gas, the turbocharger does not consume any of the engine’s power during its operation.
To understand the turbocharger’s operation, we will consider one cylinder at a time. The engine cylinders typically operate through a four-stroke cycle, Intake – Compression – Power – Exhaust.
An air compressor is attached to the air intake channel of the cylinder head while the turbocharger is attached to the air outlet channel. The turbocharger’s and air compressor’s turbines are connected so that they can move in harmony with each other. If the turbocharger speeds up, the air compressor also accelerates.
Turbocharger Operation Process
The steps below show how the turbo works.
- The intake stroke draws air into the cylinder. In petrol engines, fuel is mixed in with the air during or before the intake stroke. For diesel engines, fuel is added to the air during or at the end of the compression stroke.
- After the air has been drawn into the engine, it is compressed during the compression stroke.
- The ignition of the fuel-air mixture triggers the power stroke, which drives the engine.
- The waste air is pushed out of the cylinder as exhaust gas during the cylinder’s exhaust stroke.
- The waste air expelled is channeled to drive the turbocharger’s turbines.
- The acceleration of the turbocharger’s turbines due to exhaust gas is translated to increase the speed of the air compressor’s turbines.
- The acceleration of the air compressor increases the amount of air going into the cylinder head per second.
- With more air in the cylinder head, the fuel can burn more efficiently. Also, more fuel can be introduced into the cylinder in proportion to the additional air. The combination of increased fuel volume and improved combustion results in the generation of more engine power.
BorgWarner has developed some of the leading turbocharger technologies in the automotive industry. The company produces not only OE and aftermarket turbochargers but also REMAN systems. BorgWarner’s REMAN turbochargers are an affordable solution that satisfies the company’s stringent quality standards.